Application for a Visa, Passport or Nationality

In most cases this will involve filling out and signing a form and submitting it along with the fee required and evidence to the relevant government department or consulate.
Where the law or circumstances are complicated, or the evidence is not explicit, it is often advisable for an expert to provide a letter of representation that presents the case, and carefully shows that the requirements of the law are met by the evidence provided.
If an application fails it is often described as “refused”. The fee might or might not be refunded or partly refunded. There might be a right of appeal.
In some cases officials will do a preliminary examination of the application and return the application and fee if the application is clearly inadequate.

Immigration

Coming to a country is normally called “immigration”.
After 1900 many countries enacted comprehensive laws restricting immigration.

Visa

A document or stamp in a passport that entitles the holder to enter and stay in a particular country for a limited period of time. Most countries place conditions on what a person with a visa may do while they are in the country. For most countries separate categories of visa must be obtained in order to work or study in the country.

Transit visa

A visa to allow the holder to go through one country to get to another.
Transit visas are usually only valid for less than 10 days.

Vignette

A sticker placed by an immigration authority on the page of a passport, usually for a visa, permit or certificate.

Permanent Residence

A status that usually allows the holder to live, work or study within a country without a time limit.
In some cases this status may restrict the type of employment for a period of time. A period of absence beyond a limit (typically between 1 and 5 years depending on the country) or becoming in resident in another country causes automatic termination of the status.

Leave

Permission.
A common example is leave to remain which is permission to reside in a country. Leave is usually called “limited leave” if it is only valid for a fixed period of time, or “indefinite leave” if has no time limit.
The permission can have conditions. In the UK the permission can restrict work or study, for example.

Indefinite Leave

See under “Leave” above.
In the UK a continuous period of absence from the Common Travel Area for more than two years causes automatic loss of the status. Indefinite leave has no restrictions on work or study.

EEA National

A person who is a national of any EEA country (this does not at present include Croatia).
However, in UK domestic law an “EEA national” means a person who is a national of any EEA country other than the UK.

EEA Family Permit

Essentially a document which allows a family member of an EEA national to enter the UK.

EEA Residence Card

A document for a family member of an EEA national living in the EEA. The card allows the family member to live in the EEA for 5 years.

EEA Registration Certificate

A document that EEA or Swiss nationals can apply for in order to show they are exerting their limited right to work or study in another EEA country. In many countries this document is required to support further claims to live, study or work indefinitely in that country, or enable a family
However individual countries may make the registration certificate compulsory for nationals of certain EEA countries, e.g. a registration certificate is mandatory for Bulgarian citizens working in the UK.